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Recover an Oracle Database with Missing Archived Logs

December 22, 2012 Leave a comment

Scenario:  To recover an Oracle database from a backup with missing archived logs. The recovery process will stop at some point asking for archive logs when we try to recover from such a state.

The assumption here is that we have exhausted all possible locations to find another good and valid copy or backup of the archivelog that we are looking for.

If the archivelog is not found in any of the locations, then the approach and strategy on how to recover and open the database depends on the SCN (System Change Number) of the datafiles, as well as, whether the logsequence# required for the recovery is still available in the online redo logs.

For the SCN of the datafiles, it is important to know the mode of the database when the datafiles are backed up. That is whether the database is open, mounted or shutdown (normally) when the backup is taken.

If the datafiles are restored from an online or hot backup, which means that the database is open when the backup istaken, then we must apply at least the archivelog(s) or redolog(s) whose log sequence# are generated from the beginning and until the completion of the said backup that was used to restore the datafiles.

However, if the datafiles are restored from an offline or cold backup, and the database is cleanly shutdown before thebackup is taken, that means that the database is either not open, is in nomount mode or mounted when the backup is taken, then the datafiles are already synchronized in terms of their SCN. In this situation, we can immediately open the database without even applying archivelogs, because the datafiles are already in a consistent state, except if there is a requirement to roll the database forward to a point-in-time after the said backup is taken.

The critical key thing here is to ensure that all of the online datafiles are synchronized in terms of their SCN before we can normally open the database. So, run the following SQL statement, as shown below, to determine whether the datafiles aresynchronized or not. Take note that we query the V$DATAFILE_HEADER, because we want to know the SCN recorded inthe header of the physical datafile, and not the V$DATAFILE, which derives the information from the controlfile.

select status, checkpoint_change#,  to_char(checkpoint_time,

‘DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS’) as checkpoint_time, count(*)

from v$datafile_header

group by status, checkpoint_change#, checkpoint_time

order by status, checkpoint_change#, checkpoint_time;

The results of the above query must return one and only one row for the online datafiles, which means that they are already synchronized in terms of their SCN. Otherwise, if the results return more than one row for the online datafiles, then the datafiles are still not synchronized yet. In this case, we need to apply archivelog(s) or redolog(s) to synchronize all of the online datafiles. By the way, take note of the CHECKPOINT_TIME in the V$DATAFILE_HEADER,which indicates the date and time how far the datafiles have been recovered.

The results of the query above may return some offline datafiles. So, ensure that all of the required datafiles are online,because we may not be able to recover later the offline datafile once we open the database in resetlogs. Even though wecan recover the database beyond resetlogs for the Oracle database starting from 10g and later versions due to the introduction of the format “%R” in the LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT, it is recommended that you online the required datafilesnow than after the database is open in resetlogs to avoid any possible problems. However, in some cases, we intentionally offline the datafile(s), because we are doing a partial database restore, or perhaps we don’t need thecontents of the said datafile.

You may run the following query to determine the offline datafiles:

select file#, name from

v$datafile

where file# in (select file#

from v$datafile_header

where status=’OFFLINE’);

You may issue the following SQL statement to change the status of the required datafile(s) from “OFFLINE” to “ONLINE”:

alter database datafile <file#> online;

If we are lucky that the required log sequence# is still available in the online redologs and the corresponding redologmember is still physically existing on disk, then we may apply them instead of the archivelog. To confirm, issue the following query, as shown below, that is to determine the redolog member(s) that you can apply to recover the database:

set echo on feedback on pagesize 100 numwidth 16
alter session set nls_date_format = ‘DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS’;

select LF.member, L.group#, L.thread#, L.sequence#, L.status,L.first_change#, L.first_time, DF.min_checkpoint_change#
from v$log L, v$logfile LF,
(select min(checkpoint_change#) min_checkpoint_change#
from v$datafile_headerwhere status=’ONLINE’) DF
where LF.group# = L.group#
and L.first_change# >= DF.min_checkpoint_change#;

If the above query returns no rows, because the V$DATABASE.CONTROLFILE_TYPE has a value of “BACKUP”, then try to apply each of the redolog members one at a time during the recovery. You may run the following query to determine theredolog members:

select * from v$logfile;

If you have tried to apply all of the online redolog members instead of an archivelog during the recovery, but you always received the ORA-00310 error, as shown in the example below, then the log sequence# required for recovery is no longer available in the online redolog.

ORA-00279: change 189189555 generated at 11/03/2007 09:27:46 needed for thread 1

ORA-00289: suggestion : +BACKUP

ORA-00280: change 189189555 for thread 1 is in sequence #428

Specify log: {<RET>=suggested | filename | AUTO | CANCEL}

+BACKUP/prmy/onlinelog/group_2.258.603422107

ORA-00310: archived log contains sequence 503; sequence 428 required

ORA-00334: archived log: ‘+BACKUP/prmy/onlinelog/group_2.258.603422107’

After trying all of the possible solutions mentioned above, but you still cannot open the database, because the archivelog required for recovery is either missing, lost or corrupted, or the corresponding log sequence# is no longer available in theonline redolog, since they are already overwritten during the redolog switches, then we cannot normally open the database, since the datafiles are in an inconsistent state. So, the following are the 3 options available to allow you to open the database:

Option#1:

Force open the database by setting some hidden parameters in the init.ora. Note that you can only do this under the guidance of Oracle Support with a service request. As per Oracle Metalink,  there is no 100% guarantee that this will open the database. However, once the database is opened, then we must immediately rebuild the database.

Database rebuild means doing the following, namely:

(1) perform a full-database export

(2) create a brand new and separate database

(3) import the recent export dump.

This option can be tedious and time consuming, but once we successfullyopen the new database, then we expect minimal or perhaps no data loss at all. Before you try this option, ensure that you have a good and valid backup of the current database.

When recovery process is initiated using backup controlfile, it will output recovery succeeded but inorder to open the database the datafiles should be in consistent state.

SQL> recover database until cancel using backup controlfile;
ORA-00279: change 9867098396261 generated at 03/21/2008 13:37:44 needed for
thread 1
ORA-00289: suggestion : /arcredo/XSCLFY/log1_648355446_2093.arc
ORA-00280: change 9867098396261 for thread 1 is in sequence #2093Specify log: {=suggested | filename | AUTO | CANCEL}
cancel
ORA-01547: warning: RECOVER succeeded but OPEN RESETLOGS would get error below
ORA-01195: online backup of file 1 needs more recovery to be consistent
ORA-01110: data file 1: ‘/u100/oradata/XSCLFY/SYSTEM01_SCLFY.dbf’
ORA-01112: media recovery not startedSQL> alter database open resetlogs;
alter database open resetlogs
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01195: online backup of file 1 needs more recovery to be consistent
ORA-01110: data file 1: ‘/u100/oradata/XSCLFY/SYSTEM01_SCLFY.dbf’

Now, a hidden parameter _ALLOW_RESETLOGS_CORRUPTION=TRUE will allow us to open database even though it’s not properly recovered.

Force open the database by setting the _ALLOW_RESETLOGS_CORRUPTION = TRUE. It allows us to open database but instance may crash immediately due to undo tablespace corruption. Check alert log file to view details of the issue.To resolve undo corruption issue, change undo_management to “Manual” in init.ora. Now the database will open successfully. Once database is up and running, create a new undo tablespace and drop the old corrupted undo tablespace. Also chang back the undo_management to “Auto” and undo_tablespace to “NewUndoTablespace” in init.ora._ALLOW_RESETLOGS_CORRUPTION=TRUE allows database to open without consistency checks. This may result in a corrupted database. The database should be recreated.

 

Option#2:

If you have a good and valid backup of the database, then restore the database from the said backup,and recover the database by applying up to the last available archivelog. In this option, we will only recover the databaseup to the last archivelog that is applied, and any data after that are lost. If no archivelogs are applied at all, then we can only recover the database from the backup that is restored. However, if we restored from an online or hot backup, then we may not be able to open the database, because we still need to apply the archivelogs generated during the said backup inorder to synchronize the SCN of the datafiles before we can normally open the database.

Option#3:

Manually extract the data using the Oracle’s Data Unloader (DUL), which is performed by Oracle Field Support at the customer site on the next business day and for an extra charge. If the customer wants to pursue this approach, we need the complete name, phone# and email address of the person who has the authority to sign the work order in behalf of the customer.

Source / Reference:

How to recover and open the database if the archivelog required for recovery is either missing, lost or corrupted?

How to recover and open the database if the archive log required for recovery is missing.

Links:

Recovering an Oracle Database with Missing Archived Logs

Resolving missing archive log gap at Standby Database


ORA-04063

April 3, 2012 Leave a comment

Error: ORA-04063

OEM Error when assigning an email id to SYS user:

Internal error. ORA-04063: package body "SYSMAN.EMD_NOTIFICATION" has errors
ORA-06508: PL/SQL: could not find program unit being called:
 "SYSMAN.EMD_NOTIFICATION"
ORA-06512: at "SYSMAN.MGMT_PREFERENCES", line 1536 ORA-06512: at line 1

Cause:

Oracle policy recommends taking away the execute privilege on UTL_SMTP from PUBLIC. This takes away the privileges from SYSMAN as well. SYSMAN needs execute on UTL_SMTP and UTL_TCP to send notifications.

Workaround:

1. Log into the repository database as sys:

grant execute on sys.utl_smtp to sysman;
grant execute on sys.utl_tcp to sysman;

2. Compile:

alter package sysman.emd_notification compile;

References:

Security Policy Violations in OEM

April 3, 2012 Leave a comment

Found this four policy violations under ‘Security’ category in OEM:

1. EXECUTE UTL_FILE privileges to PUBLIC

Recommendation: Oracle recommends that you revoke EXECUTE privileges on powerful packages from PUBLIC

Violation Count:1 Details: Package ­UTL_FILE

Solution:

REVOKE EXECUTE ON UTL_FILE FROM PUBLIC;

Anyone that happens to get any userid and password on your database will be able to use UTL_FILE.

This may be legitimate, or it may be malicious – and you have absolutely no control over it if the package is granted to public.

For example, person A legitimately dumps confidential data (or has a comma-delimited spreadsheet with payroll info) in the UTL_FILE directory. Person B, a casual employee who is unhappy and about to be fired, happens to get access to the database because the demo user SCOTT is unlocked with password TIGER. Person B can now access the confidential data.

Oracle uses the ‘least privilege’ security principal. That means Oracle recommends several packages, such as UTL_FILE, be granted execute on a need-to-use basis instead of simply granting to public.

2. Excessive PUBLIC EXECUTE privileges

Recommendation: Oracle recommends that you revoke EXECUTE privileges on powerful packages from PUBLIC

Violation Count:4 Details: Package ­UTL_SMTP, ­DBMS_RANDOM, ­UTL_TCP, ­UTL_HTTP

Solution:

REVOKE EXECUTE ON UTL_SMTP FROM PUBLIC;
REVOKE EXECUTE ON DBMS_RANDOM FROM PUBLIC;­
REVOKE EXECUTE ON UTL_TCP­ FROM PUBLIC;
REVOKE EXECUTE ON UTL_HTTP FROM PUBLIC;

3. Well-known accounts Security

Recommendation: Oracle recommends that you to expire and lock well-known accounts

Violation Count:1 Details: Account­ OUTLN(open)

4. Default passwords Security

Recommendation: Oracle recommends that all default passwords be changed

Violation Count:1 Details: Account­OUTLN­

References:

Enable or Disable GATHER_STATS_JOB

March 30, 2012 Leave a comment

Enable GATHER_STATS_JOB:

SQL> exec dbms_scheduler.enable(‘GATHER_STATS_JOB’);
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Check job status:

SQL> select job_name, enabled from DBA_SCHEDULER_JOBS WHERE job_name = ‘GATHER_STATS_JOB’;

Disable GATHER_STATS_JOB:

SQL> exec dbms_scheduler.disable(‘GATHER_STATS_JOB’);
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Check job status:

SQL> select job_name, enabled from DBA_SCHEDULER_JOBS WHERE job_name = ‘GATHER_STATS_JOB’;

You can run the job manually via DBMS_SCHEDULER:

BEGIN
DBMS_SCHEDULER.RUN_JOB(
job_name => 'GATHER_STATS_JOB'
);
END;
/

References:

Switch to ASMM in 10g

March 7, 2012 Leave a comment

Oracle Automatic Shared Memory Management is enabled by setting:

  1. A spfile used to specify init.ora values
  2. sga_target parameter is set to a non-zero value
  3. statistics_level parameter set to to TYPICAL (the default) or ALL
  4. shared_pool_size must be set to a non-zero value

Check different component sizes from v$parameter

select name,value
 from v$parameter
 where name in('shared_pool_size','large_pool_size',
 'java_pool_size','db_cache_size','sga_target');

Switch to ASMM:

$ sqlplus / as sysdba
SQL> alter system set sga_max_size=1G scope=spfile;
System altered.

SQL> alter system set sga_target=500m scope=both;
System altered.
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET SHARED_POOL_SIZE = 0;
System altered.
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET LARGE_POOL_SIZE = 0;
System altered.
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET JAVA_POOL_SIZE = 0;
System altered.
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET DB_CACHE_SIZE = 0;
System altered.
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET STREAMS_POOL_SIZE = 0;
System altered.
SQL> shutdown immediate
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.

SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.
Total System Global Area 1073741824 bytes
Fixed Size 1223540 bytes
Variable Size 738198668 bytes
Database Buffers 327155712 bytes
Redo Buffers 7163904 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

SQL> show parameter sga_target
NAME                TYPE                     VALUE
----------------  ------------------  -------------
sga_target       big integer           500M

SQL> show parameter sga_max_size
NAME                   TYPE                    VALUE
------------------ ------------------ -------------
sga_max_size   big integer         1G

Disable ASSM:

Disabling ASSM can be done by chaning SGA_TARGET parameter to zero value. But we need to set the below parameter with proper sizing when we disable ASMM

1. shared_pool_size
2. large_pool_size
3. java_pool_size
4. db_cache_size

SQL> alter system set sga_target=0 scope=both;
System altered.

We may need to disable ASMM if there is significant amount of memory resizing activity that cause the performance issue in database. This frequent memory resizing might happen when the environment is mixed of DSS and OLTP environment.

Source / Reference Links:

Oracle Database Running Out of Space ?

February 22, 2012 Leave a comment

Are you running out of space in the file system where database files (data files) are installed?

Try out this tip in order to move some of your data files from one drive to another and update the datafile location in your database.

The operating system: Oracle Enterprise Linux
The Database: Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.3.0

In our environment we have installed our database’s files (data files) in /oracle/oradata/mydb location. The drive is getting up to 99% of utilization. Now we will move the system01.dbf from the above mentioned location to a new location in /oracle/hdb1/oradata/mydb location. /oracle/hdb1 is mounted from /dev/hdb1. The drive is nearly empty, that’s why I chose it.
Now for the real moving part, we will perform the following steps:
Login to SQL* Plus and shutdown the database
Logout from SQL* Plus and move the files from the source directory to destination directory.
Login to SQL* Plus as /nolog
Connect as SYSDBA to the database to an idle instance.
Issue startup mount command to bring up the database.
Issue ALTER DATABASE RENAME command to rename the data files from the source directory to destination directory.
Now finally open the database.
The above mentioned are the brief steps by which we can achieve our goal. Now to demonstrate see the following commands as well so that it serves as a live example:

Step 1
oracle@astrn10: sqlplus /nolog
SQL> conn /as sysdba
SQL> shutdown immediate;
Troubleshooting: If you are not able to get the SQL prompt, check your ORACLE_HOME, and ORACLE_SID.
Step 2
SQL> exit;
oracle@astrn10: mv /oracle/oradata/mydb/system01.dbf /oracle/hdb1/oradata/mydb/
Now check whether the file have been moved or not by issuing the following command:
oracle@astrn10: ls /oracle/hdb1/oradata/mydb/
total 429924352
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 429924352 Feb 12 11:00 system01.dbf
Now we are ready for the next step.
Step 3
oracle@astrn10: sqlplus /nolog
SQL>
Step 4
SQL> conn /as sysdba
Connected to idle instance.
Step 5
SQL> startup mount;
Database mounted.
Step 6
SQL> alter database rename file '/oracle/oradata/mydb/system01.dbf' to '/oracle/hdb1/oradata/mydb/system01.dbf';
Database altered.
Step 7
SQL> alter database open;
Database opened.

That’s all. We are done with our agenda for moving data files from one drive to another. If this where Windows/any other operating system, then copy files as per your operating system commands/interface in Step 2.
In order to copy more files (in this demonstration we have moved only one file), then repeat Step #2 and Step # 6 for each file.
#End of tip

Source:

Running out of space? Want to move Oracle Datafiles? – Ask Anantha

draft*

Oracle Locks

February 21, 2012 Leave a comment

Draft*

Query to identify the owner, object, object type, sid, serial number, status, OS user and machine to track locks:

select c.owner, c.object_name, c.object_type,b.sid, b.serial#, b.status, b.osuser, b.machine, a.session_id
 from v$locked_object a , v$session b, dba_objects c
where b.sid = a.session_id
and a.object_id = c.object_id;

More Queries:

#1
select
s1.username || '@' || s1.machine 
|| ' ( SID,S#=' || s1.sid || ',' || s1.serial# || ' ) is blocking '
|| s2.username || '@' || s2.machine
|| ' ( SID,S#=' || s2.sid || ',' || s2.serial# || ' )'
AS blocking_status
from
v$lock l1,
v$session s1,
v$lock l2,
v$session s2
where
s1.sid = l1.sid
and s2.sid = l2.sid
and l1.BLOCK = 1
and l2.request > 0
and l1.id1 = l2.id1
and l2.id2 = l2.id2;
#2
select
 oracle_username
 os_user_name,
 locked_mode,
 object_name,
 object_type
from
 v$locked_object a,dba_objects b
where
 a.object_id = b.object_id

Kill the session causing lock:

alter system kill session 'SID,SERIAL';
Eg: alter system kill session '323,1609';

Source / Reference Links: